It is the discovering of potential of applicants for actual or anticipated organizational vacancies. It actually links together those with jobs and those seeking jobs.
Flippo’s definition: “It is a process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating and encouraging them to apply for jobs in an organization.”
Thus the purpose of recruitment is to locate sources of manpower to meet job requirements and job specifications.
Factors affecting Recruitment:
1. The size of the organization.
2. The employment conditions in the community where the organization is located.
3. The effects of past recruiting efforts which show the organization’s ability to locate and retain the good performing people.
4. Working conditions, salary and benefit packages offered by the organization.
5. Rate of growth of the organization.
6. The future expansion and production programs.
7. Cultural, economic and legal factors.
However these factors may be divided specifically as Internal and External factors.
1. Recruitment policy of the organization
2. Human resource planning strategy of the company
3. Size of the organization and number of people employed
4. Cost involved in recruiting employees
5. Growth and expansion plans of the organization
1. Supply and demand of specific skills in the labour market.
2. Political and legal factors like reservations of jobs for specific sections of society etc
3. The job seekers image perception of the company.
Steps of a Recruitment Process:
Personnel recruitment process involves five elements:
1. A recruitment policy
2. A recruitment organization
3. A forecast of manpower
4. The development of sources of recruitment
5. Different techniques used for utilizing these sources & a method of assessing the recruitment program
These five elements are further elaborated below:
1. Recruitment Policy: It defines the objective of the recruitment and also provides a framework for the implementation of the recruitment program. The policy should be based upon corporate goals and needs. The criteria for selection and preferences should include merit and suitability.
2. Recruitment organization: It is necessary to centralize the recruitment and selection function in a single office. This will bring about maximum efficiency and success in hiring. This centralized office is known as the Employee Office or the Recruitment Section.
3. Forecast of Manpower: This usually specifies:
a. Jobs or Operations for which the person should be available.
b. Duration of their employment.
c. Salary to be offered & terms of the employment
d. Necessary qualification and experience
4. Sources of Recruitment: There can be two kinds of sources for recruitment:
a. Internal – This includes personnel already on the payroll of an organization. Whenever there is a vacancy, somebody within the organization fills in or is upgraded.
b. External – These sources lie outside the organization.
5. Methods of Recruitment: The possible recruiting methods can be divided into three categories:
a. Direct – In this method, recruiters visit colleges and technical schools, e.g. Infosys, the Tata Group, Accenture, IBM, Siemens and several other companies maintain continuous relationship with institutions to hire students for responsible positions.
b. Indirect – This involves advertising in newspaper, radio, T.V., journals etc. Advertising can be very effective if its media is properly chosen.
c. Third Party methods – This include use of commercial or private employment agencies, placement officials of schools, recruitment firms etc. Friends and relatives of present employees are also a good source from which employees may be drawn as part of the “Buddy Referral” programs.
Thus broadly the Personnel Recruitment Process can be mapped in a Flowchart as below:
Personnel/Human Resource Planning -> Locating needed Personnel -> Selecting Qualified Personnel -> Placing New Employees on the Job
The Main Objective of a selection procedure is to determine whether an applicant meets the qualification for a specific job, and then to choose the applicant who is most likely to perform well in that job.
The entire process of selection begins with an initial screening interview and concludes with a final employment decision. When a selection policy is formulated, organizational requirement like technical and professional dimensions are kept in mind.
Steps in selection procedure:
1. Reception of applications or preliminary screening
2. Application bank that gives a detail about the applicant’s background and life history
3. A well conducted interview to explore the applicant’s background
4. The physical examination
5. Psychological testing that gives an objective look at a candidates suitability for that job
6. A reference check
7. Final Selection approved by the manager
8. Communication of the decision to the candidate.
Therefore the Selection Process can be pictorially represented in a flowchart as below:
Establishing Selection Process -> Identifying & choosing selection criteria -> Gathering information about potential employees -> Evaluating information for assessing applicant -> Making decision to select or reject -> Communicating decision
Thus the selection process should be planned such that human resource is efficiently used. The right person for the right job and inducting her/him into the organization or department successfully is the basic criteria of the entire process.